About Authors


  1. Introduction
  2. Gross Anatomy of the Eye
  3. Simple Anatomy of the Retina
  4. How the Retina Works. (7.5 MB pdf file) by Helga Kolb

Anatomy and Physiology of the retina

  1. The retinal pigment epithelium. by Olaf Strauss

  2. Photoreceptors

  3. Outer plexiform layer

  4. S-Potentials and Horizontal cells. by Ido Perlman, Helga Kolb and Ralph Nelson

  5. Inner plexiform layer

  6. Morphology and Circuitry of Ganglion cells

  7. Visual Responses of Ganglion cells. by Ralph Nelson
  8. Melanopsin Ganglion Cells: A Bit of Fly in the Mammalian Eye. by Dustin Graham

  9. Glial cells of the retina

Retinal circuits

  1. Circuitry for Rod Signals

  2. Cone pathways through the retina
  3. Roles of Amacrine Cells

  4. AII Amacrine Cells. by Mahnoosh Farsaii and Victoria P. Connaughton.

  5. Midget Pathways of the primate retina underlie resolution and red green color opponency

  6. S-cone pathways

  7. Feedback Loops

Neurotransmitters in the Retina

  1. General characteristics of the neurotransmitters in the retina

  2. Glycine Receptor Diversity in the Mammalian Retina. by Silke Haverkamp

Phototransduction and Photoreceptor Synaptic Pathways

  1. Phototransduction in Rods and Cones. by Yingbin Fu

  2. Glutamate and glutamate receptors in the vertebrate retina. by Vikki P. Connaughton

  3. Bipolar cell pathways in the vertebrate retina. by Ralph Nelson and Vikki P. Connaughton

  4. GABAc Receptors. by Haohua Qian

Retinal Neurogenesis: Early stages in the development of neurons and pathways

  1. Development of cell types and synaptic connections in the retina. by Josh Morgan and Rachel Wong

  2. Formation of Early Retinal Circuits in the Inner Plexiform Layer. by Kevin Ford and Marla Feller
  3. Development of retinal ganglion cell dendritic structure and synaptic connections. by Ning Tian

Evolution of the vertebrate eye

  1. Evolution of Phototransduction, Vertebrate Photoreceptors and Retina by Trevor D. Lamb.

Neural basis of color vision

  1. Color Vision. by Peter Gouras.

Psychophysics of Vision. by Michael Kalloniatis and Charles Luu

  1. Principles of Psychophysics
  2. Visual Acuity

  3. Temporal Resolution

  4. Light and Dark Adaptation

  5. The Perception of Colour

  6. The Perception of Space

  7. The Perception of Depth

Brain Visual Areas

  1. Primary Visual Cortex. by Matthew Schmolesky

Repair and Regeneration in the visual sytem

  1. Regeneration in the Goldfish Visual System. by Sam Nona

  2. Regeneration in the visual system of adult mammals. by Yves Sauve and Frederic Gaillard

  3. Fetal tissue allografts in the central visual system of rodents. by Frederic Gaillard and Yves Sauve

The Electroretinogram: ERG.

  1. The Electroretinogram: ERG. by Ido Perlman

  2. The Electroretinogram: Clinical Applications. by Donnell Creel

  3. Visually Evoked Potentials: by Donnell J. Creel

Cell biology of retinal degenerations

  1. Cellular Remodeling in Mammalian Retina Induced by Retinal Detachment. by Steven K. Fisher, Geoffrey P. Lewis, Kenneth A. Linberg, Edward Barawid, and Mark R. Verardo

  2. Age-Related Macular Degeneration. by Gregory S. Hageman, Karen Gehrs, Lincoln V. Johnson and Don Anderson

Facts and Figures concerning the human retina

  1. Facts and figures concerning the human retina

Updated: February, 2014

Please send any questions or comments to: helga.kolb@hsc.utah.edu
or to: e.fernandez@umh.es

Webvision is also available at the Library of Medicines Bookshelf at the National Institutes of Health at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11530/